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why was texas annexed

Politically, the Brown amendment was designed to portray Southern Whigs as "even more ardent champions of slavery and the South, than southern Democrats. [165], The Benton proposal was intended to calm northern anti-slavery Democrats (who wished to eliminate the Tyler-Calhoun treaty altogether, as it had been negotiated on behalf of the slavery expansionists), and allow the decision to devolve upon the soon-to-be-inaugurated Democratic President-elect James K. ", Merk, 1978, pp. The bill was signed by President Polk on December 29, 1845, accepting Texas as the 28th state of the Union. and "... in Texas, went the dream ... demand for slaves might increase slave prices, bailing out the less prosperous southeast. The ethnic composition changed even more markedly by the middle of the second decade of the 21st century: nearly 40 percent of the population was Hispanic and 13 percent was African American. [144] Facing congressional and gubernatorial races in 1845 in their home states, a number of Southern Whigs sought to erase that impression with respect to the Tyler-Texas bill. The United States House and Senate, in turn, accepted the Texas state constitution in a Joint Resolution to Admit Texas as a State which was signed by the president on December 29, 1845. The annexation of Texas contributed to the coming of the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). [99] Four new states could ultimately be carved from the former republic – three of them likely to become slave states. The pro-annexation Democrat Polk narrowly defeated anti-annexation Whig Henry Clay in the 1844 presidential election. When Polk took office at noon EST the next day, he encouraged Texas to accept the Tyler offer. [84] Tyler selected John C. Calhoun to replace Upshur as Secretary of State and to finalize the treaty with Texas. ", Freehling, 1991, p. 437: "... Clay lost every state in the Deep South. ", Sellers, 1966, p. 215: "The Bentonian Senators had voted for the compromise relying on the assurance of Calhoun's friend Senator. ", Merk, 1978, p. 270: Mexican authorities feared that "... Texas was developing into an American state ...", Malone, 1960, p. 544: "... the Colonization Law of 1830 ... forbade further American migration to Texas. [115], In response, Tyler, already ejected from the Whig party, quickly began to organize a third party in hopes of inducing the Democrats to embrace a pro-expansionist platform. Texas claimed the Rio Grande as its border based on the Treaties of Velasco, while Mexico maintained that it was the Nueces River and did not recognize Texan independence. 14–15: The Benton-Van Burenite Senators "expected Polk to pursue [their] option because Polk explicitly promised Benton that he would do so. During the war Texans had to defend themselves from attacks by Native Americans, from Mexican encroachments, and from federal gunboats and invading soldiers. [7][8] Nonetheless, Texas remained an object of fervent interest to American expansionists, among them Thomas Jefferson, who anticipated the eventual acquisition of its fertile lands. For nearly a decade, Texas … [110] In doing so, Tyler and Calhoun sought to unite the South in a crusade that would present the North with an ultimatum: support Texas annexation or lose the South. [161][162] His original proposal for an annexed Texas had embodied a national compromise, whereby Texas would be divided in two, half slave-soil and half free-soil. Gen. Zachary Taylor's army nearing Monterrey, Mex., 1846. And "[Upshur] ... a devotee of strict construction and ... the beneficence of Negro slavery." The acquisition of Texas also beckoned. [188] The convention remained in session through August 28, and adopted the Constitution of Texas on August 27, 1845. U.S. History Manifest Destiny and Slavery Exploration: Lewis and Clark to Manifest Destiny . [54], With the Webster-Ashburton Treaty ratified in 1843, Tyler was ready to make the annexation of Texas his "top priority". ", Freehling, 1991, p. 446: "... the only Southern Democrat who had voted no on the annexation treaty ...", Wilentz, 2008, p. 572: "In the Senate, Thomas Hart Benton offered his own plan which would split Texas into two equal districts, one slave and one free, and require Mexico's consent. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Texas suffered throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s but later benefited from the tremendous industrial expansion that took place during World War II. [142], Anti-Texas Whig legislators had lost more than the White House in the general election of 1844. This cabinet shift signaled Tyler's intent to pursue Texas annexation aggressively. But when Secretary Upshur provided a verbal assurance of military defense, President Houston, responding to urgent calls for annexation from the Texas Congress of December 1843, authorized the reopening of annexation negotiations. Q: Why didn't Mexico recognize Texas independence? [133] This method would avoid the constitutional requirement of a two-thirds majority in the Senate. The enormous oil gusher that blew in at Spindletop (Beaumont) in 1901 opened a new economic era for the state. ", Sellers, 1966, p. 171: "... Benton and others maintained that if Texas were admitted as a state, with any stipulation of terms, this would be a treaty requiring the assent of two thirds of the Senate.". [116] By running as a third-party candidate, Tyler threatened to siphon off pro-annexation Democratic voters; Democratic party disunity would mean the election of Henry Clay, a staunchly anti-Texas Whig. Oil companies were formed; oilmen began to search for and find new deposits in the state; and refining and marketing activities provided new jobs and incomes for Texas. [67] Face-to-face negotiations commenced on October 16, 1843. 170–171: "Yet, apart from slavery, annexation was popular in much of the North ..." with some politicians under "heavy pressure" to proceed with Texas annexation. Crapol, 2006, p. 22: "... the Monroe Doctrine [was] a restatement of the Madisonian/Jeffersonian faith in territorial expansion ..." also see p. 205. He included the Packenham Letter with the Tyler bill, intending to create a sense of crisis in Southern Democrats. [26][27] Mexican authorities, perceiving that they were losing control over Texas and alarmed by the unsuccessful Fredonian Rebellion of 1826, abandoned the policy of benign rule. As early as 1836, Texans had voted for annexation by the United States, but the proposition was rejected by the Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren administrations. Freehling, 1991, p. 365: "... On April 21, 1836, General Sam Houston ambushed Santa Anna at San Jacinto ...", Malone, 1960, p. 544: "... the Texas Declaration of Independence of March 2, 1836 ...", Freehling, 1991, p. 365, Merk, 1978, pp. [169] In private and separate talks with supporters of both the Brown and Benton plans, Polk left each side with the "impression he would administer their [respective] policy. ", p. 195: "...  the diffusion argument had emerged in the Missouri Controversy of the 1820s and would remain in the Texas Controversy of the 1840s. Thus, annexation did not impose taxation without representation. Congress had blocked the Tylers ' treaties for these annexations Texas could face a with... 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